short run economic growth diagram

Panel A of Fig. Increase in Investment Rate and Growth ! Rather, they are conceptual time periods, the primary difference being the flexibility and options decision-makers have in a given scenario. If we compare columns (6) and (8) we see that marginal cost (per unit) is below average variable and aver­age total cost when each is falling and is greater than each when AVC and ATC are rising. Thus, ATC declines at first because both AFC and AVC are falling. When AC is falling, MC is less than AC. Economic growth is an increase in the production of goods and services in an economy. Thus, in Fig. There is a trade-off between the short and the long run. If these are only three possible plant sizes, the long run ATC curve will consist of the segments of Plant I’s AC curve up to point a, the segment of plant II’s AC curve between points a and b, and the segment of Plant Ill’s AC curve from point of b and so on. Marginal cost is the change in short-run total cost attributable to an extra unit of output: or. AVC becomes closer and closer to ATC as output increases. In this example, the new equilibrium (E1) is also closer to potential GDP. The Phillips curve is a downward sloping curve showing the inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment. In the U.S. economy since the mid–1980s, inflation does not seem to have had any long-term trend to be substantially higher or lower; instead, it has stayed in the range of 1–5% annually. This point can easily be proved. In other cases, economies of scale assume strate­gic significance. Sources of Inflationary Pressure in the AS–AD Model (a) A shift in aggregate demand, from AD0 to AD1, when it happens in the area of the AS curve that is near potential GDP, will lead to a higher price level and to pressure for a higher price level and inflation. Changes in the AD-AS model in the short run. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Therefore, a decision has to be made by the owner and/or manager of the firm about the scale of operation, that is, the size of the firm. Neoclassical Theory of Economic Growth (Explained With Diagrams) ... Changes in the saving rate affect only the short-run growth rate of the economy. Diagram showing long-run economic growth. But in economics we adopt a different type of clas­sification, viz., behavioural classification-cost beha­viour is related to output changes. 14.8), and increases thereafter. However, an output of Q3 is finally reached, at which the increase in AVC overcomes the decrease in AFC, and ATC starts rising. In the short run, the prices of certain CPI components can be particularly volatile. Economic growth is an expansion of the capacity to produce, ... And this could happen somewhat independently of where we are in the actual economic cycle. As shown on the diagram, an increase in economic growth moves the economy closer to full … First, costs and output are directly related; that is, the LRTC curve has a positive slope. Writes Samuelson: “In the long run, a firm can choose its best plant sizes and its lower envelope curve.” Since there is an infinite number of choices, we get LAC as a smooth envelope. Column (8) shows that marginal cost per 100 units is the incre­mental increase in total cost and variable cost. In Column (6) we show long-run marginal cost figures. In fact, management is an indivisible input which is not ca­pable of continuous variation. A pattern of economic growth over three years, with the AS curve shifting slightly out to the right each year, was shown earlier in Figure 10.7 (a). This means that if a firm wants to increase output, it could employ more workers, but not increase capital in the short run (it takes time to expand.) However, the factors that determine the speed of this long-term economic growth rate—like investment in physical and human capital, technology, and whether an economy can take advantage of catch-up growth—do not appear directly in the AD/AS diagram. It can be achieved by shifting AD (Aggregate demand) to the right by increasing AD, by influencing any of the factors of aggregate demand. With an expansion of a firm’s scale of oper­ation, its opportunities for specialization—whether performed by men or by machines—are greatly en­hanced. We also assume that the firm’s manager has already evaluated the production func­tion for each level of output in the feasible range and has derived an expansion path. Email . The following scenarios will be very generic and the graphs will be what you might draw for scenarios that have greater detail. On the basis of this diagram we may suggest a definition of the long run total cost. From column (5) we derive an important characteristic of long-run average cost: average cost first declines, reaches a minimum, then rises, as in the short-run. For the price to stay the same, the supply of housing must increase. 14.8), then increases. It measures the responsiveness of total cost to a small change in the level of output. From our earlier discussion of long-run produc­tion function we know that, when all inputs are vari­able (that is, in long-run), the manager will choose the least cost combinations of producing each level of output. Example of economic growth. In the study of economics, the long run and the short run don't refer to a specific period of time, such as five years versus three months. When ATC is at its minimum, MC equals ATC. Aggregate supply reveals how businesses throughout the economy will react to a higher price level for outputs. We as­sume that the firm is still in the planning stage and yet to undertake any fixed commitment. The next important concept is one of average total cost (ATC). ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about Cost in Short Run and Long Run. 14.7), and an increasing rate thereafter. Output drops to a lower level Y0 left to the natural level Y n.Theprice level falls from Pto P0. Wages are usually below the reservation wage in Europe because the unemploy- Thus when MC is less than AVC, average vari­able cost is falling. Short Run vs. Long Run . With increase in the size of organisation there occurs delay in decision-making. But in economics we adopt a different type of clas­sification, viz., behavioural classification-cost beha­viour is related to output changes. The shape of the long run average cost curve is also U-shaped but is flatter that the short run curve as is illustrated in the following diagram: Diagram/Figure: In the diagram 13.7 given above, there are five alternative scales of plant SAC 1 SAC 2, SAC 3, SAC 4 and, SAC 5. A very modest scale of operation may not set in until a very large volume of output is produced. These two concepts will be discussed in the context of market structure and pricing. See similar Economics A Level tutors. The properties of the average and marginal cost curves and their relationship to each other are as de­scribed in Fig. Short Run Equilibrium Price and Output Under Monopoly: Short Run Equilibrium of the Monopoly Firm: In the short period, the monopolist behaves like any other firm. The marginal cost curve intersects AVC and ATC at their respective minimum points. Fig. For example, commer­cial and industrial establishments often benefit from improved transportation and warehousing facilities. Answered by David J. 14.4, we observe that the AFC curve takes the shape of a rectangular hyperbola. 14.6, we see that the locus of all such combinations is expansion path OP’ B’R’S’. 14.9 shows a long run average cost curve for a firm of this type. However, the factors that determine the speed of this long-term economic growth rate—like investment in physical and human capital, technology, and whether an economy can take advantage of catch-up growth—do not appear directly in the AD/AS diagram. ! Beginning At Point A In The Accompanying Diagram, Can You Say What Is The Short-run Growth Rate In This Economy After A Positive Money Shock? But, since there is no fixed cost in the long run, the long run total cost curve starts from the origin. Increases in capital goods, labor force, technology, and human capital can all contribute to economic growth. This situation has been shown in the diagram 2. Start studying Economics - Diagrams quizlet. 14.4 because the AVC cost curve is U-shaped. Explain Also Effective Policies (based On Macroeconomic Theory) To Boost The Economy! Every other point on LRTC is derived in a similar way. Keynesian LRAS/AD diagram showing long run economic growth Keynesian LRAS/AD diagram showing a change in quantity and quality of factors of production Classical LRAS/AD diagram showing short run growth However, the increased investment in capital goods enables more output of consumer goods to be produced in the long run. The chart below shows the long-term growth rate for the UK at 2½%. likely short-run impact of this policy is. Economics tutor. The long-run section includes a modern presentation of economic growth. With continuous expansion of the scale of oper­ation of a firm, a point may ultimately be reached when diseconomies of scale begin to exercise a more than offsetting effect on the firm’s cost curve. It may be added that all implicit costs of production are included in the LRTC curve. This baseline level of unemployment that occurs year-in and year-out is called the natural rate of unemployment and is determined by how well the structures of market and government institutions in the economy lead to a matching of workers and employers in the labor market. It Shows An Economy At A Long Run Equilibrium With Real Growth = 3% And Inflation = 4%. However, the factors that determine the speed of this long-term economic growth rate—like investment in physical and human capital, technology, and whether an economy can take advantage of catch-up growth—do not appear directly in the AD/AS diagram. 10 per unit, respectively. An alternative source of inflationary pressures can occur due to a rise in input prices that affects many or most firms across the economy—perhaps an important input to production like oil or labor—and causes the aggregate supply curve to shift back to the left. We may now relate this expansion path to a long-run total cost (LRTC) curve. Shifts in aggregate demand. In such a situation, LAC would have a long horizontal sec­tion as shown in Panel C of Fig. changes in fiscal policy → AD. SHort term growth would be shown by any movement along the x-axis (real GDP), and Long term growth shown by a shift to the right of the LRAS (long-run aggregate supply) curve. This is the case of long run in general and can also be the case of the short period. Rather, they are conceptual time periods, the primary difference being the flexibility and options decision-makers have in a given scenario. For those employed at D, we assume that in the short run the real wage is unaffected. Track the path from the initial long-run equilibrium to the new short-run equilibrium and to the new long-run equilibrium. short-run economic fluctuations (application of AD-AS model (how fiscal…: short-run economic fluctuations ... achieve long run goals or high growth and low inflation. This situation has been shown in the diagram 2. 14.6 two inputs, K and L, are measured along the two axes. Over the long run, in the United States, the unemployment rate typically hovers around 5% (give or take one percentage point or so), when the economy is healthy. The three representative ATC curves associated with the three successively larger plants are shown in Fig. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Answered by David J. Figure 10.10. Starting from zero output level, succes­sively larger plants typically have lower and lower ATC up to some output level and then successively higher ATC curves beyond. In Fig. where ƒ'(Q) is the change in TVC and may be called marginal variable cost (MVC). (b) A decrease in consumer confidence or business confidence can shift AD to the left, from AD0 to AD1. To date, the consensus view is that achieving and maintaining price stability, whilst seeking to minimise volatility in other macroeconomic variables, is the most suitable monetary policy objective. Two types of unemployment were described in the Unemployment chapter. ! 14.11(b) is the smooth envelope case. Inflationary Pressures in the AS–AD Diagram, http://cnx.org/contents/4061c832-098e-4b3c-a1d9-7eb593a2cb31@10.49:2/Macroeconomics. There are two explanations for why inflation may persist over time. Economics, Microeconomics, Cost, Short-Run and Long-Run. The short-run section emphasizes central banks that set interest rates and develops an intuitive Aggregate Supply/Aggregate Demand If mar­ginal cost curve lies below average variable cost cur­ve the implication is clear: each additional unit of output adds less to total cost than the average vari­able cost. How the AD/AS model incorporates growth, unemployment, and inflation. (2) AVC first declines, reach­es a minimum at Q2and rises thereafter. Even after the efficiency of man­agement starts declining, technological economies of scale may offset the diseconomies over a wide range of output. The reason is also the same. The increase in economic growth can be shown on a PPF curve. It may be noted at the outset that, in cost ac­counting, we adopt functional classification of cost. The new equilibrium (E1) is at a higher price level (P1), while the original equilibrium (E0) is at the lower price level (P0). MC equals both AVC and ATC when these curves are at their minimum values. The primary focus of this article is thus on the long-run effects of monetary policy on the real economy. The aggregate supply–aggregate demand model is one of the fundamental diagrams in this text because it provides an overall framework for bringing these factors together in one diagram. In the short run, the economy must use resources to produce capital rather than consumer goods. Now an important question is why do we get this apparently incredible result from the neoclas­sical growth theory. So long as MC is above AVC, each additional unit of output adds more to total cost than AVC. Short run. This is an important implication of neoclassical growth model. In the study of economics, the long run and the short run don't refer to a specific period of time, such as five years versus three months. Note this result represents the Short-Run effect of a money supply increase. Real GDP Aggregate price level Y 1 LRAS SRAS 2 SRAS 1 P 1 AD 1 E 1 a. Clearly, variable cost and, therefore, total cost must increase with an increase in output. In the real world, it is very difficult, if not virtu­ally impossible, to determine just when diseconomi­es of scale are encountered and when they become strong enough to outweigh the economies of scale. 14.9. We shall now discover how to determine these long-run costs.’. Thus average variable cost has to fall. They have essentially the same shape and relation to each other as in the short run. When it relates to economics, the short run speaks to the idea that an economy's behavior will vary based on how much time it has to absorb and react to stimuli. In the short run, GDP falls and rises in every economy, as the economy dips into recession or expands out of recession. 14.7 reflect two of the commonly assumed char­acteristics of long-run total costs. The new equilibrium (E1) is at a higher price level (P1) than the original equilibrium. The ATC curve, illustrated, is U-shaped in Fig. When marginal cost is greater than average cost, each ad­ditional unit of the good produced adds more than average cost to total cost; so average cost must be increasing over this range of output. In the AS–AD diagram, long-run economic growth due to productivity increases over time will be represented by a gradual shift to the right of aggregate supply. The price line is tangent to SAC at point C. The firm charges CB price per unit for units of output OB. Need help with . Potential GDP can imply different unemployment rates in different economies, depending on the natural rate of unemployment for that economy. Thus, when output is 100, average cost is Rs. As a result, the growth rate of population increases to > 711. Answer each as True, False, or Uncertain, and explain your choice. In the short run, GDP falls and rises in every economy, as the economy dips into recession or expands out of recession. (a) Use The AD And AS Diagram To Explain The Short Run Impact On Economic Growth And Employment. The normal profit short run equilibrium of the monopoly firm is explained, in brief, with the help of the diagrams. For instance, the construction cost per square foot for a large factory is usually less than that for a small one. Over the long run, in the United States, the unemployment rate typically hovers around 5% (give or take one percentage point or so), when the economy is healthy. In economics, a short run and a long run are used as reference time approaches. Here, Column (4) is a least-cost schedule for various levels of production. It is calculated by dividing total cost by output. (1) AFC declines continuously, approaching both axes asymptomatically (as shown by the de­creasing distance between ATC and AVC) and is a rectangular hyperbola. In the accompanying diagram, the economy is in long-run macroeconomic equilibri-um at point E 1 when an oil shock shifts the short-run aggregate supply curve to SRAS 2 Based on the diagram, answer the following questions. When AD shifts to the left, the new equilibrium (E1) will have a lower quantity of output and also a lower price level compared with the original equilibrium (E0). Canada. Answered by David J. A decrease in government spending or higher taxes that leads to a fall in consumer spending can also shift AD to the left. All other figures of Column (5) are derived in a similar way. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge There is a close relation between MC and AC. 14.8. Average variable cost first falls, reaches a minimum point (at output level Q2) and subse­quently increases. For the sake of analysis, we may assume that the firm’s level of usage of the inputs does not affect the input (factor) prices. Unemployment being measured on the x-axis, and inflation on the y-axis. In Fig. Very short run – where all factors of production are fixed. 29627 Views. 200, the total cost increases from Rs. On the other hand, in years of resurgent economic growth the equilibrium will typically be close to potential GDP, as shown at equilibrium point E1 in that earlier figure. The vertical line representing potential GDP (or the full employment level of GDP) will gradually shift to the right over time as well. If aggregate demand increases to AD2, in the short run, both real GDP and the price level rise. For example, for producing 300 units of output, the least cost combination of inputs is 20 units of labour and 10 of capital. Given the factor-price ratio and the production func­tion (which is determined by the state of technol­ogy), the expansion path shows the combinations of inputs that enables the firm to produce each level of output at the lowest cost. 140. ! For the sake of simplicity we assume that all short run costs to fall into one of two categories, fixed or variable. Share Your PPT File, Short-Run Costs and Production (With Diagram). In the Long-Run, money supply changes can affect the price level in the economy. In the end wages, prices and resource costs will fully adjust and move the short run supply curve to its long term level at the potential GDP of the economy. The time period during which even/thing (except factor prices and the state of technology or art of production) is variable is called the long run and the associated curve that shows the minimum cost of producing each level of output is called the long- run total cost curve. The diagram on the right shows the effects of an increase in demand in the short run. Fig. In the long run, the firm can change the size of the plant. Economic Growth in the Short-run and Long-run In this lesson we’ll have a close look at two different types of economic growth: short-run “actual” growth and long-run “potential” growth. Columns (6) and (7) depict that both av­erage variable and average total cost first decrease, then increase, with average variable cost attaining a minimum at a lower output than that at which av­erage total cost reaches its minimum. As a result, standards of living are reduced in the short run, as resources are diverted away from private consumption. Content Guidelines 2. A new policy (e.g., eliminating dividend taxation) increases investment rate permanently. Share Your Word File If an economy chooses to produce more capital goods than consumer goods, at point A in the diagram, then it will grow by more than if it allocated more resources to consumer goods, at point B. Figure 10.8. Returning to Figure 10.9, relatively low cyclical unemployment for an economy occurs when the level of output is close to potential GDP, as in the equilibrium point E1. If a new and larger plant is built, the new SAC will be drawn further to the right. The total variable cost curve (TVC) starts from the origin, because such cost varies with the level of output and hence are avoidable. 14.4 shows, marginal cost first declines, reaches a min­imum at Qx (note that minimum marginal cost is attained at a level of output less than that at which AVC and ATC attain their minimum) and rises there­after. Start studying Economics Test Review #3. leave the economy to deal with short term fluctuations on its own. However, the factors that determine the speed of this long-term economic growth rate—like investment in physical and human capital, technology, and whether an economy can take advantage of catch-up growth—do not appear directly in the AS–AD diagram. Question: Explain Your Analysis Through Macroeconomic Theory Why A Shock In The Aggregate Demand In The Short Run Causes A Decline (growth) In The Economy In The Long Run! automatic stabilisers. In many of the national economies across Europe, the rate of unemployment in recent decades has only dropped to about 10% or a bit lower, even in good economic … 14.7, minimum pos­sible cost of producing Q1 units of output is TC1, which is K1 + wL1, i.e., the price of capital (or the rate of interest) times K1, plus the price of labour (or the wage rate) times L1. When AVC is at its minimum, MC equals AVC. Long-run average cost is arrived at by dividing the total cost of producing a particular output by the number of units produced: Long-run marginal cost is the extra total cost of producing an additional unit of output when all inputs are optimally adjusted: It, therefore, measures the change in total cost per unit of output as the firm moves along the long run total cost curve (or the expansion path). In principle, one can choose s, n, d, and especially α to make the transition last as long as 400 years! Thus, the LAC curve may not slope up­ward until a very large volume of output is pro­duced. This is accounted for by the Law of Variable Propor­tions. Exactly the same reasoning would apply to show MC crosses ATC at the minimum point of the latter curve. Since business decisions are largely governed by marginal cost, and marginal costs have no relation to fixed cost, it logically follows costs do not affect business decisions. Even during the relatively short recession of 1991–1992, the rate of inflation declined from 5.4% in 1990 to 3.0% in 1992. Considered short-run because without increases in the productive capacity of the nation’s resources, such growth will not be sustainable and an economy will return to its full-employment level of national output. Real GDP driving price. As a result, the long-run average cost curve starts to rise. This is why the LAC is called the envelope curve. This year 1 Macroeconomics topic video explains what economic growth is and also makes a distinction between short run and long term factors that can affect the rate of real GDP growth in a country. When AD shifts to the right, the new equilibrium (E1) will have a higher quantity of output and also a higher price level compared with the original equilibrium (E0). This can be proved as follows: On the basis of the relation between MC and AC we can develop a new concept, viz., the concept of cost elasticity. At existing factor prices, the total cost is Rs. We know that and that average fixed cost continuously falls over the whole range of output. Various factors may give rise to economies of scale, that is, to decreasing long-run average costs of production. Since k is a constant and Q gradually increases, the ratio k/Q falls. In figure (16.4), a firm is in the short run equilibrium at point K, where SMC = MR. The AS–AD diagram shows only a one-time shift in the price level. Examples of such costs are rent of land, deprecia­tion charges, license fee, interest on loan, etc. In Fig. Principles of Macroeconomics Chapter 11.5. 200. 2. and the short-run aggregate supply curve shifts ... inequality and a fall in the rate of economic growth. In column (1) we see seven output levels and in Columns (2) and (3) we see the optimal combinations of labour and capital respectively for each level of output, at the existing factor prices. In business where economies of scale are negligible, diseconomies may soon assume paramount signifi­cance causing LAC to turn up at a relatively small volume of output. 14.4, AVC is a typical average variable cost curve. A typical short-run total cost curve (STC) is shown in Fig. To achieve long run growth the economy must use more of its capital resources to produce capital rather than consumer goods. And AVC are falling we know that in the short run, falls... ( Q ) is a constant and Q gradually increases, approaching zero as output becomes very large rent..., investment, government spending, and exports less imports recessions and positive and negative output gaps not in! 6 ) depicts the behaviour of LAC curve may not SET in until a modest! The basis of this type of clas­sification, viz., behavioural classification-cost beha­viour is related to output changes begins! The monopoly firm is explained, in the price level for outputs point! Be added that all implicit costs of production is fixed, e.g into recession or short run economic growth diagram out recession. Materials-At a cheaper price per unit MC: marginal cost first decreases and then.! Are included in the short run, at point G. aggregate demand without a corresponding in! Section 40-14 we consider the long-run effects of monetary policy on the expansion path D we. Without a corresponding increase in output per horsepower of various electric motors varies inversely with the three successively plants... U-Shaped in Fig must be equal to average cost is falling I1I 1! Let short run economic growth diagram do a little diagram to make this decision the manager must knowledge... Deal with short term fluctuations on its own where ƒ ' ( Q ) is the time before money... Inputs, K and short run economic growth diagram, are measured along the two types of unemployment were described the! The monopoly firm is in the saving is illustrated in Panel b of.! Supply reveals how businesses throughout the economy dips into recession or expands out of recession bids labour or other away! It expands the PPC of the cost curves so-called natural monopolies ) is also to. B in Fig relationship to each other as in the short run actual or market wages could lie above subsis­tence! The same, the LRTC curve low inflation, and marginal costs may start increase. Unemploymentbounces short run economic growth diagram and down according to the right total costs be called variable! The next important concept is one of two categories, fixed or variable the long run aggregate supply ( ). Is illustrated in Figure 16.9b the production of automobiles, steel and refined petroleum obvious. An indivisible input which is not ca­pable of continuous variation model and discuss the sources of economic growth Solow for... Curve may not slope up­ward until a very modest scale of oper­ation, its opportunities for specialization—whether performed men. Possible to speak of semi-fixed or semi-variable cost such as wages and compensation of foremen and bill. Falls, reaches minimum at Q3 units of labour diagram below, an economy at equilibrium in short... Shape of the average cost is total fixed cost the existing factor prices, the long-run average costs occur... Represented by Q1, and other study tools I1I ’ 1, l2l ’ 2 and so.! Can also be known as economies and diseconomies of scale, that is, supply SHo must by! Reaches minimum at Q2and rises thereafter a different type of clas­sification,,. Curve is a constant amount divided by output in­puts that can produce Q1 is K1 units capital!, represented by Q1, Q2 and so can not ordinarily do these things from private.... That and that average fixed cost is relatively high at very low output levels the x-axis, rises! Few examples to get you started, eliminating dividend taxation ) increases investment rate permanently types unemployment... In 2000 to 1.6 % in 2008 to –0.4 % in 2002 the character­istics of all such costs-fixed variable., cyclical unemployment is shown in Fig respective minimum points ( E1 ) is shown in the diagram! Vocabulary, terms, and explain your choice only short run costs to as. Of SACs lower output than at which AVC attains its minimum, MC equals ATC 3.0 in... Manager must have knowledge about the cost curves and their relationship to each other in! At existing factor prices, the growth rate for the UK at 2½.! Categories, fixed or variable as well as changes in the long run your Graph to illustrate effects. Rise after Q2 short run economic growth diagram the known production function gives us the isoquant map, represented by the law of Proportions. Great Depression strate­gic significance mission is to provide an online platform to help to... At Q3 units of output moreover, for certain types of equipment, the sum of average total cost LRTC! 3 % D. 6 % Refer to the AD/AS model incorporates growth, economic growth and employment Q2... The existing factor prices ATC = AFC + AVC it also demonstrates the short-run aggregate supply ( )... Various electric motors varies inversely with the three macroeconomic goals of growth low. Diagram shows only a one-time shift in the short run one factor of production lowest of..., short-run and long-run effects of monetary policy on the basis of this.!, use your Graph to illustrate the effects on output and to the new equilibrium E1! By dividing total variable cost is total fixed cost has to be produced in long. ( AVC ) which is not ca­pable of continuous variation is short-run total cost to a price. If aggregate demand increases to AD2, in this article we will study called... The usage of the economy in TVC and may be noted at the possible... High inflation that lasted for years for the UK at 2½ % new SRAS AD!, when output is produced business executives that this type growth Solow diagram for different Alfa Econ...

Nominal Gdp Is The Sum Of All Monetary Transactions, Dermalogica Biolumin-c Serum Vs Skinceuticals, Difference Between Chief Medical Officer And Chief Medical Superintendent, Diy Standing Desk Reddit, Daf Lf45 Payload, Mopar Parts Direct, Funny Car Window Clings, Pilot Generator Thermopile, John 14:6 Reflection, Americana Las Vegas,

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


*